In the context of plant culture refers to a plants ability to tolerate a normal range of soils and moisture. This does not include extremes such as wet or dry areas.
- Adequate Moisture
A plant requiring adequate moisture should be grown on a site that is well drained but does not dry out between normal intervals of rainfall. This would mean avoiding sandy soils and areas where moisture will drain away quickly such as the top or side of a slope.
The outer-most segments of the flower. The sepals collectively.
A spike-shaped flowering structure that is often pre-formed in summer and present throughout winter, such as on a birch.
Literally means a reduction of chlorophyll. Is recognized by the yellowing of foliage (particularly new leaves) while the veins remain darker green. In landscape plants is usually caused by high pH soils which sequester soil iron in a form that cannot be taken up by plants to use in chlorophyll production.
Stands for Cultivated Variety. Refers to a specific plant variety (denoted by single quotation marks, e.g. 'Goldflame') that must be propagated vegetatively (asexually) to maintain it's unique ornamental features. Therefore all 'Goldflame' spireas look alike because they have been vegetatively propagated and thus have identical genetic make-ups.
Plants which shed their leaves in winter.
Describes plants having imperfect flowers (i.e. either male or female structures on one flower) and only one type of flower on any one plant. In other words, plants of dioecious species are either male or female.
- Double flower
A flower in which some or all of the reproductive structures have been replaced by additional petals. These flowers are usually partially or completely sterile.
- Dry Conditions
A planting site where available moisture drains away relatively quickly following rainfall. This condition can be created by a sandy or otherwise porous soil, the top of a ridge or slope, or a landscape planter.
The process of cutting plant stems in winter and placing indoors in water which "forces" the stems to bloom.
- Full Sun
Exposure to direct sunlight for at least 8 hours per day.
Galls are the abnormal growth of plant cells that result in spherical or cylindrical structures on leaves, stems or roots. Galls can be caused by a variety of organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, but most galls are the result of insect egg-laying or feeding. Some types of galls can grow larger than an inch, but most are much smaller. Galls are usually only an esthetic concern, typically being harmless to the host plant.
Covered with a waxy bloom such as that on a plum.
- Growth Rate
The growth rates listed here are best used as relative comparisons among plants as actual growth is dependent on many factors. A very general rule-of-thumb for growth rates would be; fast = over 2' of growth per year, Medium = 1-2' of growth per year and Slow = less than 1' of growth per year.
A term commonly used to describe the fruit of roses.
A plant without foliage on its lower half which allows the stems or "legs" to be seen.
- Multi-season Interest
In this context is not used in the literal sense but describes a plant with ornamental interest in 3 or 4 seasons.
A flower arrangement with a center axis bearing small branches of flowers.
- Partial Shade
Exposure to direct sunlight between 2 hours and half a day.
Describes the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (in this case the soil). A pH value of 7 is neutral, while values less than 7 are increasingly acidic and values greater than 7 are increasingly alkaline. A soil considered high pH in the Midwest would have a pH value above 7.6.
Thorn-like outgrowths of a plant's bark. The "thorns' of roses are actually prickles.
- Protective Siting
Locating a plant where it is buffered from temperature extremes and harsh winter winds. This would most typically be near a building(s) but may also include a group of large evergreen trees or land formations. With broadleaf evergreens such as Rhododendrons this definition would expand to include protection from exposure to winter sun.
Literally means wrinkled. Describes leaves with deep set veins giving a puckered texture.
Plants which hold their green leaves into late fall or early winter.
The outer-most segments of the flower. The sepals enclose the flower when in bud.
Exposure to direct sunlight for less than 2 hours per day.
- Single Flower
A flower with a single layer of petals and a full complement of reproductive structures.
Sprouts that are produced from the roots of a plant.
The tip of a branch or stem. Flowers on the tips of branches are borne terminally.
- Urban Tolerant
Describes plants that are able to withstand conditions common to urban plantings; limited soil volume, poor compacted soils, heat and drought, salt runoff, low soil fertility, air pollution, etc.
- Wet Conditions
A planting site where standing water periodically occurs, such as following spring thaw and heavy rainfalls.
- Witches' Broom
Witches' brooms are dense proliferations of stem growth in the canopy of a plant. Witches' brooms can be caused by a variety of factors, including insects, microorganisms, and genetic mutations. Genetic mutations are a particularly common cause of witches' brooms in conifers, and the propagation of these unusual growths is the primary source of dwarf conifer cultivars. Witches' brooms in deciduous plants are typically less than 12 inches across, and are normally only an esthetic concern.